Physical Activity, Exercise Physiology, Movement
An ecological momentary assessment study examining the association between television usage and physical activity among low-income mothers of toddlers.
(School of Medicine (UMB) Public Health Master's Student)
Campbell, Katherine (UMB SOM Epidemiology and Public Health), Hager, Erin (UMB SOM Pediatrics), Wang, Yan (UMB SOM Pediatrics), Tilton, Nicholas (UMB SOM Epidemiology and Public Health), Black, Maureen (UMB SOM Pediatrics)
Background: Factors in the home environment, such as television usage, have been associated with reduced physical activity (PA) in adults. Traditional methods of assessing home environment factors rely on self-report measures subject to recall bias. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of real-time data collection that aims to assess the context of PA behaviors and minimize recall bias. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine EMA and accelerometry data in low-income mothers with toddlers to determine if there is an association between PA and whether the television is on/off. Methods: From 2007 to 2010, TOPS collected PA data on mother-toddler dyads recruited from a suburban clinic and an urban pediatric clinic in Maryland. Mothers were given a handheld EMA device (Palm Z22) that prompted them with a social/physical environment survey (53 random beeps over 8 days) and an ankle accelerometer (Actical) to simultaneously assess their PA (data extracted 15 min before/after response, average activity count min-1). Linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts and unstructured covariance matrices were used for the analysis of activity counts and TV on/off. Within-subject and between-subject effects were disaggregated with person-mean centering strategy in the mixed models. Results: Of the 277 mothers recruited to participate in the study, 188 had complete data (mean age 26.9 years, 60.6% Black, and 53.2% urban). This resulted in 3987 EMA/PA responses. Within-subject analyses indicated that given a specific participant, having a TV on was associated with 156.63 fewer counts of PA (SE=15.56, p=<0.0001) compared to when the TV was off. Between-subject analyses indicated that having a TV on was associated with 146.97 fewer counts of PA (SE=65.28, p=0.0244) compared to when the television was off. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that having a television on in the home environment is associated with reduced PA in low-income mothers with toddlers.