Health Care, Access, Insurance
This paper examines the long-term impact of exposure to Medicaid in early childhood on adult health and economic status. The staggered timing of Medicaid’s adoption across states created meaningful variation in cumulative exposure to Medicaid for birth cohorts that are now in adulthood. Analyses of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data suggest exposure to Medicaid in early childhood (age 0-5) is associated with statistically significant and meaningful improvements in adult health (age 25-54), and this effect is only seen in the subgroups targeted by the program. We find no evidence of an economic effect, although these results are imprecise. Using separate data we find evidence of two mechanisms that could plausibly link Medicaid’s introduction to long-term outcomes: contemporaneous increases in health services utilization for children, and reductions in family medical debt.