Beins, Kaley (UMD SPH Maryland Institute of Applied Environmental Health)
Yuki, Lama (UMD SPH Family Science)
Jaleh, Montazer (UMD SPH Public Health Science)
Kajal, Parikh (UMD SPH Public Health Science)
Darya, Soltani (UMD SPH Public Health Science)
Kelsey, Talarico (UMD College of Computer)
Ghaffar Ali, Hurtado (UMD SPH Family Science)
Elisabeth, Maring (UMD SPH Family Science)
Background: Worldwide, two thirds of children who are chronically malnourished live in lower- to middle-income countries. A 2017 report from the Pan American Health Organization found that prevalence of hunger has recently increased in six Latin American countries, including in Peru. According to the World Food Programme, 13.1% of Peruvian children are malnourished with child malnutrition reaching as high as 33.4% in rural areas where government programs and funding are less available. The Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) estimates that 43.5% of children aged 6 to 35 months are anemic, with estimates rising to 51.1% in rural areas, concerns about the lasting health effects of malnutrition on children and pregnant women. Although MINSA has created technical guides and interventions to combat these issues, the resources necessary for effective interventions are rarely available in rural areas of Peru. Public Health Without Borders (PHWB) relies on its 5-year relationship with the community of Compone, an agricultural highland community 16 miles west of Cusco, to address public health issues that are relevant to the residents.
Goal: In collaboration with the local health clinic in Compone, the PHWB team modified MINSA’s materials and implemented a culturally-competent, low-cost nutrition intervention.
Objectives: Based on a 2013 technical document from MINSA, this education-based intervention aimed to prevent negative health outcomes associated with malnutrition by targeting children and childbearing age women.
Approach: PHWB led 30-minute workshops (in Spanish) at the clinic and covered information on portion sizes, food groups, and the effects of malnutrition. Each workshop included: 1) a short presentation (charla), 2) a hands-on activity, 3) a child’s activity book about nutrition, and 4) a summary handout for participants to take home.
Results: The workshop was held twice over the course of the week with a total of 17 participants. Participant feedback and discussion helped shape a follow-up nutrition intervention that PHWB will implement in Compone in July 2018.
Importance to public health: This intervention provides a model for the creation of future culturally competent interventions based on community input and materials from the partner country.
Wang, Min Q. (UMD)
Ighani, Mehrnaz (UMD)
Background: Telehealth technology has been noticed as the use of electronic communication and information technologies to provide long distance clinical health care and health administration. In rural areas telehealth services increase patient access to services such as emergency department care, home health, specialty care, medication adherence, and intensive care monitoring.
Goal: To report an analysis of the telehealth and Electronic Health Records (EHR) adoption by primary care physicians in the 5 counties of Mid-Shore, Maryland.
Objectives: To report an analysis of the telehealth and Electronic Health Records (EHR) adoption by primary care physicians in the 5 counties of Mid-Shore, Maryland.
Approach: Active primary care physicians (n=110) chosen were ˂75 years of age, held a specialty board in family medicine, general practice, internal medicine, pediatrics or OB/GYN general, had an active medical license, and designated a practice in one of the counties, and provided patient care for ≥20 per week in 2014-2015. We excluded physicians working for the federal government and military.
Results: More than 2/3 (73%) used electronic prescriptions more than seventy-five percent of the time. Talbot County has more PCPs than other counties, but has the lowest percent (62%) using electronic prescriptions. More than 2/3 (74%) used electronic medical records in the region and Kent county had the lowest percent (50%) using electronic medical records. Most physicians (93%) used computers to obtain information about treatment alternatives and 83% used them to send prescriptions electronically to pharmacies. About two-thirds (66%) used computers to generate reminders about preventive services needed for patients and most (92%) used computers to access patient notes, medication lists, or diagnoses. About two thirds (67%) used computer for clinical data and image exchanges with other physicians while more PCPs (87%) used computer for clinical data and image exchanges with hospitals and laboratories. About half of PCPs (51%) used computers to communicate about clinical issues with patients by email and (91%) of PCPs use computers to obtain information on potential drug interactions.
Importance to public health: Telehealth technology and EHR play a role in helping rural communities increase access to care for isolated rural residents.
Kaplow, Katya (UMD SPH Behavioral and Community Health)
Talarico, Kelsey (UMD CMNS Biology)
Montazer, Jaleh (UMD SPH Public Health Science)
Soltani, Darya (UMD SPH Public Health Science)
Ahmad, Mishal (UMD CMNS Biology)
Lama, Yuki (UMD SPH Family Science)
Maring, Elisabeth (UMD SPH Family Science)
Background: Road traffic incidents rank ninth as a leading cause of death internationally, many of which could have been prevented by proper road safety practices. Annually, road trauma is the third leading cause of premature death and over 4,000 road traffic deaths are reported in Peru (WHO, 2015).
Goal: To address road safety in rural Peru, a multi-pronged approach was developed and implemented in August 2017 by Public Health Without Borders (PHWB), in collaboration with Engineers Without Borders (EWB), both student-run organizations at the University of Maryland.
Objectives: In a multi-year commitment, the student groups have worked extensively with the rural community of Compone, which is situated along a major highway frequented by commercial trucks that lacks sidewalks for pedestrians, to address the importance of road safety.
Approach: PHWB conducted road safety education workshops for community members, including distribution of culturally and linguistically appropriate road safety educational materials and addressing questions related to bridge construction. Children’s workbooks were composed of simple word and picture games aimed at promoting road safety practices: looking both ways and listening for traffic, wearing bright clothes at night, and walking across the road with a companion.
Results: PHWB utilized frameworks and tools such as cultural competency, community engagement, and health literacy to create a sustainable working relationship with community leaders in Compone. Challenges and lessons learned include language barrier, limited literacy and low health literacy, communication channels, and political considerations.
Importance to public health: Promoting road safety is a preeminent global public health priority as demonstrated by the Sustainable Development Goal to reduce the number of international deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents in half by 2020. Increased incidence of road traffic incidents continues to threaten public health and further research is pivotal in developing concerted, tailored health education efforts to enhance road safety practices within this community.
Levy, Lauren (UMD SPH Behavioral and Community Health Horowitz Center for Health Literacy)
Kaplow, Katya (UMD SPH Behavioral and Community Health Horowitz Center for Health Literacy)
Platter, Heather (UMD SPH Behavioral and Community Health Horowitz Center for Health Literacy)
Background: Limited data on the use of health literacy techniques in the state of Maryland is a barrier to a systems-approach to health literacy progress. It is unknown how nonprofit organizations, local and state government, hospitals, and other agencies incorporate health literacy tactics in their work to improve individual, community, and system-level health literacy.
Goal: The purpose of this project was to gather county-level data on the assets, gaps, and opportunities for health literacy best practices in Maryland.
Objectives: The project included an environmental scan and qualitative interviews with key stakeholders to obtain a diverse and practice-based understanding of the health literacy best practices in Maryland’s 24 counties.
Approach: A team from the Horowitz Center for Health Literacy conducted background research to examine community resources, health indicators, economic factors, social determinants of health, and population demographics for each Maryland county. Relevant organizational, governmental, and community health leaders were contacted to do a semi-structured interview. Data and responses were compiled to assess themes, as well as assets, gaps, and opportunities for health literacy.
Results: More than 30 interviews with state and county-level organizations were conducted with key stakeholders from 22 counties. The types of organizations included local health coalitions, hospitals, nonprofit organizations, health departments, and government agencies. Emerging themes included the desire to empower communities to control their health; the need to evaluate the effectiveness of programs and materials; need for a process to develop health materials; importance of community needs assessments; and difficulty of communicating with hard-to-reach populations. On a scale of 1 (very inadequate) to 5 (highly adequate), most interviewees ranked their organization’s use of health literacy techniques and best practices a 3.
Importance to public health: The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy found that only 12 percent of U.S. adults have proficient health literacy. It is necessary to understand how Maryland public health organizations use health literacy techniques to improve individual and community-level health outcomes. Through learning each county’s assets, gaps, and opportunities, a state framework for health literacy can be created to support the implementation and training of community health leaders to make Maryland the first health literate state.
Lindsey, Katie (UMD SPH Public Health Science)
Pekosz, Maddy (UMD SPH Family Science)
Maring, Elisabeth (UMD SPH Family Science)
Borzekowski, Dina (UMD SPH Behavioral and Community Health)
Background: Public Health Without Borders is a student-led organization at the University of Maryland that provides health education to communities both locally and abroad. PHWB Sierra Leone works closely with the Abigail D. Butscher Primary School and the surrounding Calaba Town community. Previously, the PHWB Sierra Leone Project conducted health workshops that focused on handwashing, first aid, and malaria education, and based on feedback from the community in 2016, the 2017 travel team provided additional health education on typhoid and cholera prevention as well as oral rehydration therapy.
Goal: The main objective of Public Health Without Borders Sierra Leone is to educate communities on the values of health practices such as hand washing, first aid, and communicable disease-prevention.
Objectives: 1. Teach health workshops to students and community members regarding disease prevention 2. Conduct needs assessments for future trips and interventions 3. Conduct health behavior interviews to better understand the community's needs 4. Conduct a school evaluation to understand the impact of education on students
Approach: Health workshops were developed over the semesters prior to traveling to Sierra Leone. Undergraduate and graduate students, as well as faculty members, collaborated on the workshops before they were finalized. Needs assessments and health behavior interviews were developed to address the community. A travel team of undergraduates, graduate students, and a faculty member travelled to Calaba Town, Sierra Leone, and implemented these workshops and conducted interviews with primary school students and community members.
Results: Preliminary reviews of the needs assessments from 2017 reveal unmet health needs persist in the community, including education on chronic disease prevention, nutrition, and methods to improve sanitation and access to clean drinking water.
Importance to public health: Children's health and education shapes the future. Increasing access to quality education, as well as increasing education regarding disease prevention, improves outcomes for children. Addressing disparities in education is an essential part of public health.
Taiwo, Omolola (Department of Behavioral and Community Health)
Wang, Min Qi (Department of Behavioral and Community Health)
Supple, Matt (Department of Fraternity and Sorority Life)
Background: To understand the impact of attending multiple sexual assault prevention programs has on reducing rape myth acceptance
Goal: To improve sexual assault education and awareness
Objectives: Hypothesis: That attending two or more sexual assault prevention programs will reduce rape myth acceptance scores more than only attending one sexual assault prevention program.
Approach: This is a cross-sectional study assessing the rape myth acceptance scores of (n=579) sorority undergraduate women and (n=340) fraternity undergraduate men.
Results: One way ANOVA revealed that there was a significant gender difference in rape myth acceptance scores, F (1,784) = 91.202, p<.001. Females were more likely to have lower rape myth acceptance (M= 31.58, SD= 8.57) when compared to men (M= 34.30, SD = 11.12). Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender, attending a sorority or fraternity chapter's SAP program, and attending a sexual assault prevention (SAP) program open to all undergraduate students (F(3,782) = 34.902, p <.001) significantly predicted lower rape myth acceptance scores; and explained 11.5% of the variance (Adjusted R2=.115).
Importance to public health: The study revealed that gender had the biggest contribution to lowering rape myth acceptance scores, followed by attending a campus-wide SAP program, and attending a chapter specific SAP program. This study suggests that college campuses should consider offering multiple sexual assault prevention programs to Greek affiliated members.