Buckenmaier, Susan (UMD SPH Epidemiology)
Tullier, Sophie (UMD Stamp Student Union)
Cruz-Cano, Raul (UMD SPH Biostatistics)
Dallal, Cher (UMD SPH Epidemiology)
Background: Nearly two-thirds of recent veterans are classified as overweight or obese. While prior research has examined various biological and psychological explanations for the high proportion of veterans struggling with excess weight, limited studies have assessed overweight and obesity among veterans in a university environment.
Goal: The goal of this project was to gain a better understanding of how past military history is associated with current overweight or obesity among student veterans.
Objectives: This analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Veteran Student population at the University of Maryland and to examine whether factors related to military service background are associated with weight status.
Approach: Participants included University of Maryland, College Park veteran students who completed the 2017 Veteran’s Needs Assessment (n=172). The study utilized a convenience sample of male and female student veterans recruited using an email and social media campaign and through announcements made at different events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (CI) for relationships between military factors (rank, commission status, time in service, and deployment history) and weight status (normal weight and overweight/obesity).
Results: After preliminary analysis, the odds of being overweight/obese were significantly elevated for those that were junior ranking personnel (OR=4.35, 1.41-13.38 95% CI) versus senior ranking, those that deployed (OR=2.50, 1.28-4.91 95% CI) versus those that did not deploy, and individuals who spent 6 or more years in military service (6-10 years: OR=3.94, 1.86-8.34 95% CI, 11-15+ years: OR=2.67, 1.01-7.10 95% CI) compared to those who spent 5 or less. Conversely, earning a commission and being an officer were inversely associated with being overweight/obese (OR=1.58, 0.71-3.51 95% CI).
Importance to public health: This project is the first assessment of weight status among veterans at the University of Maryland. Findings from this analysis can help University of Maryland and other schools better support the health and well-being of the student Veteran population as a means of limiting the long-term impacts of overweight/obesity on health. Moreover, these findings lend support for further evaluation, particularly in larger studies, to combat this health concern.
Burnett, Jenna (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Kim, Yong Woon (Kyungnam University)
Shim, Jae Kun (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Background: Human performance is quantified utilizing many variables, with power specifically used to analyze maximal effort in movements such as jumping, which can be a proxy for whole body power. Many jump height calculations use the ground reaction force (GRF) as the basis of calculating the center of mass (CoM) position. However, it is possible that CoM height variables may be influenced by errors in the initial mass estimated from the static portion of the GRF.
Goal: This project investigated how mass errors influenced the CoM position during a countermovement jump.
Objectives: Specifically, this project tested (1) how the static range of the GRF used to calculate the mass changed the CoM position and (2) how incrementing the mass by 0.1 kg up to ±0.5 kg changed the position during a countermovement jump.
Approach: The static portion of 8 GRF trials was divided into 10 static ranges (Tk, k = 1:10), and used to calculate 10 initial masses (Mi, i = 1:10). Each Mi was incremented to simulate 11 masses (Mi,j, j = 1:11) with up to 0.5 kg of error. Using the Mi,j and GRF, the position was calculated as the double integration of acceleration using the cumulative trapezoid method. From the position, the maximum (Hmax) and minimum (Hmin) height, the timing of the maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin), the difference between the initiation (H1) and the landing (H2), the H1 and the final height at the end of the trial (H3), and H3-H2 were calculated.
Results: Preliminary visual results indicate that the Mi,j may significantly influence Hmax, Hmin, H3-H1 and H3-H2, while Tmax and Tmin may not be largely influenced. The Hmax difference between Mi,1 and Mi,11 appeared to be up to ~10 centimeters, a significant change in Hmax. Visual analysis of Tk indicates it may have minimal influence on the variables, assuming the GRF was properly stable.
Importance to public health: These preliminary analyses indicate that researchers may need to proceed with caution if using this method to calculate jump characteristics, as errors may significantly inflate or deflate results, leading to inaccurate conclusions, especially regarding maximal human performance.
Callow, Daniel (Kinesiology)
Won, Jun (Kinesiology)
Weiss, Lauren (Neuroscience and Cognitive Science)
Alfini, Alfonso (Kinesiology)
Smith, J. Carson (Kinesiology and Neuroscience and Cognitive Science)
Background: Dementia is a decline in cognitive ability severe enough to affect daily life and which affects approximately 5-7% of the world’s population over 60. Throughout our lives, the brain undergoes structural and functional changes to maintain cognitive performance in response to continuous neurodegenerative insults. Semantic memory task activation, measured via the famous name recognition task (FNRT), acts as a measure of neural efficiency and a predictor of future cognitive decline. Exercise has shown promise as a means for attenuating age and disease-related cognitive decline, however, there is a gap in our understanding of the mechanisms by which exercise affords these benefits.
Goal: The purpose of our study is to compare the effects of an acute bout of low versus high-intensity cycling exercise on functional magnetic resonance imaging activation during a semantic memory task in younger adults.
Objectives: We hypothesized that after both high and low-intensity exercise, subjects would exhibit greater semantic memory task activation compared to baseline pre-intervention measures. We also hypothesized that the intensity of the cycling condition would have an interactive effect on semantic memory task activation changes.
Approach: In a completely within-subject design, 12 participants (8 Male, 6 Female, Age = 24.1 (±4.1) Yrs.), on two separate days and in counterbalanced order, performed the FNRT while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging both before and after a 30-minute bout of high and low-intensity exercise.
Results: The extent of semantic memory task activation was significantly lower in the Left Middle Frontal Gyrus following exercise and no significant effect of exercise intensity was found. Mean semantic memory task activation within the Left Middle Frontal Gyrus was significantly lower following exercise, independent of exercise intensity (p<.001). These results indicate that a single bout of acute exercise may be beneficial for cognition via improvements in neural efficiency, independent of exercise intensity.
Importance to public health: These findings suggest participation in aerobic exercise may provide short-term benefits to neural efficiency. These short-term benefits may culminate over time, reducing strain on neural networks throughout the lifespan, therefore, providing protection from age-related cognitive decline and contributing to the healthy aging of the brain.
Caminita, Mia (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Shim, Jae Kun (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Background: Various types of sensory manipulation influence human motor performance. Most studies examining sensory manipulation have focused on the sensory effects on fine motor skills. However, gross whole-body movements are also important to many tasks of daily living requiring larger motor output for movement, yet little is known about the effects of sensory manipulation on these movements.
Goal: The goal of the current study is to examine one type of sensory manipulation, cooling, and the effect this may have on motor performance of a vertical jumping task.
Objectives: We hypothesize that sensory cooling of the soles of the feet will lead to decreased performance on a gross motor task of maximal vertical squat jump (MVSJ).
Approach: Participants are first instructed on proper technique for performing a MVSJ. Following practice trials and a brief rest period, the participant performs baseline vertical jumping trials. The soles of the participants’ feet are then submerged in an ice-water bath for 15 minutes to induce sensory cooling. Immediately following the cooling procedure participants perform subsequent trials of the MVSJ. The feet are then allowed to warm naturally for 15-minutes and subsequent MVSJ trials are performed. Immediately prior to the completion of the jumping trials for each condition, temperature measurements of the soles of the feet are recorded and following jumping trials, a standardized evaluation of tactile perception is completed. Joint angles, joint power, and jump height at key points during the jump sequence are calculated.
Results: Preliminary results suggest that sensory manipulation in the form of cooling the soles of the feet reduces MVSJ height as compared to the baseline condition. Additionally, given a re-warming phase following the cooling procedure maximum jump height increases towards that of the baseline condition.
Importance to public health: Diseases such as diabetes can lead to a condition known as peripheral neuropathy which diminish patients’ ability to correctly perceive tactile and temperature stimuli, especially in the feet. By understanding the change in performance with induced sensory loss in the feet, we can begin to understand the necessary rehabilitation considerations to improve quality of life for clinical populations suffering from the loss of peripheral sensation.
Gaskins, Christopher (UMD SPH Kinesiology Neuroscience and Cognitive Science)
Kontson, Kimberly (Food and Drug Administration)
Shaw, Emma (UMD SPH Kinesiology Neuroscience and Cognitive Science)
Shuggi, Isabelle (UMD SPH Kinesiology Neuroscience and Cognitive Science)
Ayoub, Maria (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Rietschel, Jeremy (Department of Veteran's Affairs)
Miller, Matthew (Auburn University)
Gentili, Rodolphe (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Background: Mental workload has been widely examined during cognitive-motor tasks performed by individuals without physical injuries, but a more restricted effort has studied this notion in the context of motor rehabilitation. This pilot study was conducted to better understand how varying levels of mental workload affect simulated upper limb prosthetic performance.
Goal: To examine changes in mental workload under various levels of motor and cognitive demands during simulated upper-limb prosthetic performance
Objectives: 1. We predict that for both conditions, upper-limb performance would be negatively related to changes in cognitive-motor demands. 2. We predict that for both conditions, mental workload would be positively related to changes in cognitive-motor demands. 3. We predict that for a given level of task difficulty, upper-limb performance would be higher and mental workload would be lower for the unbraced condition compared to the braced condition.
Approach: Ten right handed participants (average age 27.5 ± 3.47 years) with no upper limb disabilities or injuries were selected for this study. Participants were required to place colored blocks in identically colored target spaces in a two-minute period. The task was executed under unbraced and braced (participants’ wrists and fingers were restrained to simulate a prosthetic hook grasp) conditions and under two levels (easy, hard) of cognitive (one or two block colors) and motor (large, small targets) demands. The NASA Task Load Index(NASA-TLX) was employed to assess mental workload. Additionally, the total number of blocks transported as an indicator of motor performance and the percentage of blocks transported without a block placement error as an indicator of attention was recorded.
Results: The preliminary findings revealed increases in motor and/or cognitive demand led to elevated mental workload and a decreased performance in both normal and braced conditions although greater frustration and effort was reported for the braced condition.
Importance to public health: A better understanding of the changes in mental workload can not only elucidate underlying attentional mechanisms engaged during adaptive motor performance but also inform the development of metrics to assess mental workload during upper limb prosthetic performance with the use of different prosthetic devices.
Ginsberg, Drew (UMD)
Hatfield, Bradley (UMD)
Objectives: To determine if mental preparation i.e. psyching (PSY), will contribute to higher muscular performance (maximal knee extension) and heightened cortico-cortical networking when compared to distracting conditions mental arithmetic (MA), reading comprehension (RC).
Approach: Fifteen healthy participants (19-30 years of age), were recruited and required to have a minimum of one year weight training experience. Eleven of the participant data for analysis. Electroencephalography (EEG) and torque production (Isokinetic) were measured. The study consisted of two visits. Visit one consisted of informed consent, a background questionnaire and isokinetic practice trials for familiarization. EEG collection was conducted on visit two, included the same warm-up and exposure to three different conditions (PSY, RC, and MA). Conditions consisted of three trials (total of nine) with a rest interval between each trial. During each trial, a 20- second task period was provided (PSY, RC, MA). For each trial, EEG data was collected and participants determined their rate of perceived exertion by using the Borg RPE scale.
Importance to public health:
Huang, Dina (UMD SPH Epidemiology and Biostatistics)
Nguyen, Quynh (UMD SPH Epidemiology and Biostatistics)
Background: Residential mobility is related to a person’s neighborhood environment and social environment and could have impact on an individual’s health outcomes. Mobility studies have focused on the experience of mobility and its association with health behaviors, obesity and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents. Little is known about the effects of mobility on body mass index(BMI) and obesity in adults.
Goal: In this study, we leveraged individual level data from the Utah Population Database (UPDB) and Utah driver licenses to assess the association between residential mobility and obesity for adults in Utah.
Objectives: We hypothesized that greater mobility is associated with higher BMI and higher prevalence of obesity.
Approach: The study population is 1.69 million adults aged 20 years or older in 2015 living in Utah. BMI records calculated from self-reported height and weight extracted from Utah driver license were corrected using BMI regression estimates from NHANES 2007-2014 that compared self-reported-height and weight with exam-measured height and weight. We used the most recent record of BMI for each participant as the outcome and calculated 10 year’s residential changes and life long residential changes as exposures. Generalized linear regression was used for the model using BMI as the outcome and possion regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of obesity.
Results: Individuals with the greatest percentage of mobility in the recent 10 years were associated with increase in BMI and higher prevalence of obesity, accounting for individual age, sex, race, education and zip code population characteristics. Associations were robust and even stronger in models using lifelong residential changes as the exposure.
Importance to public health: Understanding mobility and the factors associated with mobility could provide new perspectives in obesity prevention.
Hunter, Jessica (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Garcia, Gina (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Shim, Jae (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Miller, Ross (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Background: Runners with history of tibial stress fracture show higher per-step vertical average loading rate and absolute free moment than previously uninjured runners. Per-step knee loads increased but cumulative loads were similar between walking and running. At faster speeds, longer step lengths mean fewer steps are required to travel a distance, and may not necessarily lead to increases in accumulated load. The question of how speed distribution within a training program affects cumulative load is important because speed distribution is an easily modifiable factor of training.
Goal: The purpose of this study was to compare the accumulated vertical average loading rate (accumulated LR), accumulated peak absolute tibial free moment (accumulated FM), and accumulated peak compressive tibial load (accumulated TL) between two distributions of speeds: i) all mileage at normal speed (N) and ii) a combination of slow and fast speeds with the same average speed as normal (ASN).
Objectives: We hypothesized that accumulated loads would be greater for ASN than N program due to a larger proportion of fast running.
Approach: Subjects wore 33 reflective markers on the pelvis and lower limb. They ran around a 50-m indoor track for three laps each at three speeds: self-selected slow, normal, and fast paces. For each self-selected speed, velocity (VEL), step length (SL), steps per kilometer (SPK), loading rate (LR), peak absolute free moment (FM), and peak tibial compressive load (TL) was calculated. Per-kilometer accumulated load was calculated for N and ASN by multiplying the respective SPK by the per step load for LR, TL, and FM. Because subjects’ speeds were self-selected, within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA was performed to compare the VEL, SL, SPK, LR, TL, and FM to ensure differences. A paired-samples Wilcoxon test was performed to compare accumulated LR, accumulated FM, and accumulated TL between N and ASN speed distributions.
Results: Each variable increased with speed (p < 0.01) except FM, which was similar between slow-normal. The comparisons of accumulated LR, accumulated TL, and accumulated FM showed no differences between the two speed distributions.
Importance to public health: Development of osteoarthritis is, in part, attributed to how loads are applied to the body. How physical activity affects these loads is important to understand the etiology of this disease and other musculoskeletal disorders.
Shaw, Emma (Department of Kinesiology)
Rietschel, Jeremy (Veteran's Health Administration)
Shuggi, Isabelle (Department of Kinesiology)
Xing, Yishi (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Hendershot, Brad (Department of Rehabilitation)
Pruziner, Alison (Department of Rehabilitation)
Chen, Shuo (Department of Epidemiology and Public Health)
Miller, Matthew (School of Kinesiology)
Hatfield, Bradley (Department of Kinesiology)
Gentili, Rodolphe (Department of Kinesiology)
Background: Prior work has examined cognitive workload by assessing the magnitude of cerebral cortical networking during upper-extremity performance, yet no such examination has been conducted during locomotion.
Goal: The goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the magnitude of cerebral cortical networking could serve as an index of cognitive workload during dual-task walking.
Objectives: We hypothesized that an increase in cognitive-motor demand would result in an elevated cognitive workload, as reflected by an increased magnitude of cortical networking to the motor planning region.
Approach: EEG was collected from fourteen uninjured participants as they performed a task of low and high cognitive demand, both while seated and walking on a treadmill in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment. Cortical networking was assessed via the weighted phase lag index with a scalp montage centered over the motor planning region (electrode Fz), due to its common use in cognitive-motor studies. Although walking involves cognitive-motor processes, it is often considered automatic and may require limited motor planning compared to upper-extremity performance. Therefore, advanced algorithms able to better capture more detailed patterns of cortical connectivity over the entire scalp was also employed.
Results: While the more exhaustive method revealed additional networks not captured using the traditional montage, both revealed a modulation of cortical networking in the theta and alpha bands for the performance condition (seat vs. walk) and cognitive task difficulty (low vs. high demand), respectively. Overall, the connectivity modulation suggests i) larger engagement of neural network functions (e.g., working memory, attentional control, sensory integration) during elevated cognitive-motor demands and ii) that this approach can index the level of cognitive workload during dual-task walking.
Importance to public health: The present study provides support for the utility of EEG connectivity analyses as an objective real-time assessment of cognitive workload during dual-task walking within an ecologically valid environment. This work can inform cognitive workload assessment in patient populations with gait deficiencies for future applications. This work was funded by the CRSR (awards HU0001-11-1-0004 and HU0001-15-2-0003) and the DoD-VA EACE. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Government.
Shuggi, Isabelle (UMD)
Shaw, Emma (UMD)
Wu, Helena (UMD)
Moreno, Arianna (UMD)
Oh, Hyuk (UMD)
Shewokis, Patricia (Drexel)
Gentili, Rodolphe (UMD)
Background: While numerous studies have assessed mental workload to understand the allocation of attentional resources throughout performance of a cognitive-motor task, only a limited number of studies have investigated mental workload in the context of longitudinal training. Although the examination of mental workload during motor learning is critical to understanding the underpinnings of cognitive-motor mechanisms, psychological factors such as the notion of self-efficacy are also fundamental to consider.
Goal: This work aimed to examine the changes in performance, mental workload, and self-efficacy throughout practice of a novel reaching task.
Objectives: It was hypothesized that throughout training there would be improved performance, a decrease in mental workload, and an increase in self-efficacy.
Approach: By employing limited head movements and a human-machine interface, participants learned to control a virtual robotic arm within a two dimensional workspace. Participants could move their heads in eight directions (i.e., up, down, left, right, and diagonally) to reach the targets, which appeared randomly throughout the workspace. Kinematic performance, mental workload, and self-efficacy were assessed on each of the eight training days.
Results: Overall, as individuals progressed through the training, the results revealed that: i) motor performance and self-efficacy improved while mental workload decreased and ii) the dynamics of motor performance, mental workload, and self-efficacy tended to differ throughout training. Specifically, although additional analyses are needed to further examine these dynamics throughout training, performance improved faster than the decrease in mental workload, while self-efficacy seemed to be the slowest to exhibit improvement.
Importance to public health: This work contributes to inform cognitive-motor mechanisms as well as the design and training of assistive technologies and prostheses.
Ward, Alicia (UMD SPH Epidemiology)
Saksvig, Brit (UMD SPH Epidemiology)
Dallal, Cher (UMD SPH Epidemiology)
Background: The prevalence of physical activity related chronic conditions remains the highest for African American women than any other racial/ethnic group. However, only approximately 30% of African American women report meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity. Previous studies have suggested that social support facilitates physical activity; however, limited studies have examined associations between social capital, the connections and relationships between individuals and their community, and physical activity among African American women.
Goal: This project examines the association between social capital and physical activity
Objectives: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis examining measures of neighborhood social capital in relation to physical activity among African American women.
Approach: The Sisters Healthy and Empowered Study (SHAPE) recruited African American women (n=200) from a total of six barbershops and beauty salons in two counties in Maryland during the period of March 2014 to March 2015. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that focused on beliefs about physical activity such as barriers, benefits, and their social and built environment. Neighborhood social capital was assessed using an index of 9 scored measures which were summed and categorized based on their tertile distribution. Physical activity was dichotomized as having met physical activity guidelines for moderate and vigorous. Logistic regression will be used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between social capital and meeting moderate and vigorous physical activity guidelines.
Results: Across the age groups, approximately 27-35% and 25–32% of women met moderate or vigorous physical activity guidelines, respectively. In addition, among those classified as obese, 39.2% of women met moderate physical activity guidelines while 36.5% met the vigorous physical activity guidelines. Approximately 30% of women with reported high social capital met moderate or vigorous physical activity guidelines (34.2% and 32.4%, respectively). Logistic regression models of social capital in relation to physical activity outcomes are currently underway.
Importance to public health: The results of this project will inform future social supportive, culturally appropriate interventions aimed towards increasing physical activity in African American women
Weiss, Lauren (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Alfini, Alfonso (Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health)
Won, Jun (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Smith, J. Carson (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Background: Aerobic exercise training has potent neuroprotective effects on the aging brain; exercise increases neurogenesis and blood perfusion, improves the communication of functionally associated brain regions, and confers benefits across several cognitive domains. These effects are particularly robust in the hippocampus, a structure associated with learning and memory that is vulnerable to atrophy in primary and pathological aging processes. While the effects of exercise training are well studied, it is unknown how short-term cessation of exercise training impacts these biomarkers of brain health.
Goal: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term exercise cessation on correlated [de]activation, or “functional activity” of the hippocampus in healthy and highly endurance-trained older adults.
Objectives: We hypothesized that exercise cessation would decrease functional connectivity of the hippocampus, indicating attenuated communication of this region with the rest of the brain.
Approach: This study utilized a within-subjects design. Functional connectivity was assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), whereby blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data were acquired from ten master athletes before and after ten days of complete abstention from exercise. We utilized a seed-based correlation analysis using the bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior hippocampi as a priori seed regions of interest in separate analyses. Here, the average signal time series were extracted from each seed region, and a correlation analysis quantified the extent of functionally coherent activity in remaining brain areas. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in anterior and posterior hippocampal connectivity from pre- to post-exercise cessation.
Results: Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased connectivity of the anterior hippocampi with left medial frontal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex; decreased connectivity was detected between posterior hippocampi and the right precentral gyrus and left insula. However, none of these decreases were statistically significant after controlling for family-wise error rate.
Importance to public health: Regular exercise is necessary for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and other training adaptations. These preliminary findings suggest that functional connectivity of the hippocampus may not be significantly affected by short-term exercise cessation, and that exercise-induced benefits on the aging brain might persist in the face of abrupt exercise training interruptions.
Smith, J. Carson (UMD SPH Kinesiology)
Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen (UMD Hearing and Speech Sciences)
Ozturk, Zuleyha (Undergraduate)
Mirzazadeh, Tina (Undergraduate)
Nielson, Kristy (Marquette University)
Background: Previous reports have found that exercise training (ET) in older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with increased functional connectivity of the default mode network, increased cortical thickness, decreased cortical activation during semantic memory retrieval and increased episodic memory performance, but no change in verbal fluency. Also, it is not known whether ET influences the total score or complexity of words produced. This project allows us to explore these relationships and determine whether physical activity influences verbal fluency in older adults and mild cognitive impairment.
Goal: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week walking ET intervention on the frequency and complexity of words produced during a phonemic fluency task.
Objectives: Verbal fluency refers to producing words from a specific category (e.g., starts with F), involves selecting words by inhibiting competing alternatives (e.g., phone). Our objective was to determine if a 12-week walking exercise training intervention would significantly influence the frequency and complexity of words produced during this phonemic fluency task. We hypothesized that there would be a significant difference due to the exercise training intervention.
Approach: MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls completed a 12-week ET intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Before and after ET, participants completed a phonemic verbal fluency task as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Total word count and complexity of responses, measured by word frequencies and syllable length, were examined.
Results: There was no change in total word count. However, both groups produced words with greater frequency after ET (p = .016, partial eta-squared = .163). In addition, participants diagnosed with MCI produced words with fewer syllables after ET, an effect not observed in healthy controls (interaction p = .034, partial eta-squared = .129). These findings suggest 12-weeks of walking exercise training may modify lexical retrieval strategies, with a greater reliance on more frequently appearing words, and in the case of MCI, words that have fewer syllables.
Importance to public health: It is plausible ET is related to enhanced cognitive control by inhibiting competing words and facilitating a search for easier words to speak. This is significant because exercise training may be used to help improve cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
Won, Junyeon (Department of Kinesiology)
Alfini, Alfonso (Department of Mental Health)
Weiss, Lauren (Department of Kinesiology)
Michelson, Corey (Department of Kinesiology)
Smith, J. Carson (Depart)
Background: A growing body of research indicates that acute exercise in older adults is associated with enhanced executive function, including inhibitory control and working memory. However, most studies have measured cognition shortly after the exercise session, and whether or not acute exercise has longer lasting cognitive benefits in older adults has not been established.
Goal: To investigate executive function performance 1.5 hours after a single session of exercise, compared to rest, in healthy older adults; and to secondarily determine if sleep moderates these effects.
Objectives: We hypothesized that acute exercise would enhance executive function up to 1.5 hours. Longer sleepers may demonstrate better executive function performance compared to short sleepers. Acute exercise and sleep time may not show interactive effects, because only healthy participants with normal sleep will be recruited.
Approach: 30 healthy older adults (65.8±8.1 years) completed two experimental sessions on different days that entailed 30-min of seated rest or moderate intensity exercise on a Monark cycle ergometer. Ninety minutes after exercise and rest, participants performed the Stoop Color and Word Task (Stroop) to measure inhibitory control and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) to for working memory. To examine sleep, participants wore an actigraphy watch for at least three days prior to the first experimental session.
Results: Written SDMT performance following acute exercise (59.6±7.9) was significantly better compared to rest (57.6±9.4) [p < 0.001, n² = 0.519]. Moreover, oral SDMT performance was significantly better after exercise (58.7±9.4) compared to rest (57.9±9.0) [p < .001, n² = 0.607]. Incongruent accuracy during Stroop task was significantly greater after exercise [p = 0.047, n² = 0.138]. Long sleeper performed significantly faster Congruent [p = 0.007, n² = 0.237] and Incongruent response time [p = 0.004, n² = 0.268], higher Incongruent accuracy [p = 0.004, n² = 0.264] during Stroop task compared to short sleepers. Also, longer sleepers performed significantly better in SDMT written [p = 0.003, n² = 0.277] and SDMT oral [p = 0.006, n² = 0.250] relative to short sleepers.
Importance to public health: These findings suggest that working memory performance is enhanced up to 1.5 hours after acute exercise in older adults. Sleep time may affect executive function performance and longer sleep time was associated with better executive function performance. No interaction between acute exercise and sleep time on executive function was found.